The temperature was a little too high for the grey plastic, but it should have been fine for the PEI sheet. That looks like it was up closer to 120. The main reason the PEI probably failed was due to removal technique. Grey ABS tends to discolor above 235 or 95 on the bed. It’s cosmetic, and you can generally ignore it or sand it off. To remove that part properly though, you need to use a careful wedgeing action around all edges at approximatly 60 degrees. Fully cool parts are actually harder to remove. The removal tool of choice varies, many people use paint scrapers. I personally use this cheese slicer: https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B000SDQGL6/ with the slicy part taped over with heavy gorilla tape. The thin leading edge which is dull at the front, but thin enough to get under almost any part, and reinforced at the sides is basically the ideal 3d printer part removal tool. I keep trying to get someone to make them without the cheese slicer part, but so far no luck.
As far as replacing the PEI, you’re in luck, it’s a fairly easy process with two paths you can take. 1. you can remove the existing PEI and adhesive and replace it for $45 https://www.lulzbot.com/store/parts/lulzbot-taz-pei-sheet . The process to do that involves freezing the entire build plate for an hour or so to cause the adhesive to relax, carefully removing the remaining PEI, using a citrus based adhesive remover (such as goof off) to remove just the PEI adhesive from the PEI side of the glass (and being extra careful to keep it away from the heater side), then cleaning the glass very well twice with glass cleaner and adhering the new sheet.
You can also just buy a new bed heater and glass PEI sandwich assembly: https://itworks3d.com/product/lulzbot-taz-bed-heater-glass/ the blemished ones go for $49 or so.
To properly remove a part, wait for the bed temperature to lower to 60, or reheat it to 60, then starting at a corner, work your removal tool under the brim or part edge, being careful to not gauge the bed. then slowly work your way around the edges and towards the center, striving to wedge the part away rather than pull it up off the bed. If you end up with a discolored white spot under the part, thats an air bubble and it means you didn’t do it correctly. Next time you print that will act as an insulator, and either make things not stick correctly, or trap heat and cook your PEI. You may also have been slightly too close to the bed, though for a tall print like that it’s better to err on closer.
edit: you shouldn’t be too worried about other damage. You’ll want to check the bed for level/tram once you reinstall things, and maybe look to see if a rod looks visibly bent or anything like that, but that would be rare.
Hope that helps!