Hi. This is a strange one. If I launch Cura by selecting an stl file, which is how I usually do it, I have all the custom slicer profiles that I have saved using this launch method. If however, I launch Cura first from the desktop icon, none of the saved profiles appear, except some older ones I set up on other occasions when launching this way. It works both ways. If I then save a new profile, that in turn won’t show up when launched from an stl file.
That is most curious! I would recommend sending a bug report with your OS, Cura version number, type of computer, and the description of your issue you posted here. That sounds like it is either an issue with Cura itself or the way it is able to communicate with your computer.
Also might not hurt to do a clean out of your computers cache files, if you have updated your Cura recently and didn’t delete them during the update. With the new Cura LE there were issues were old cache files were causing problems with firmware transfer. It isn’t the same situation exactly but it also isn’t unthinkable that the old files could be interrupting the overall functionality of the software. Just a heads up though, if you have profiles that you have made yourself saved in Cura clearing your cache will delete them.